Cartography of the Senegalese killed overseas during 2015
Mame Demba THIAM, Nicolas SAGNA & Alla MANGA
Laboratory of geography
Fondamental Institute of Black Africa
Cheikh Anta Diop university
« Once again, a Senegalese is killed overseas » has been in 2015 a constant headline displayed by the online journals. One thing that can be noted is the kind of trivialization of the repetitive character of the information. However the gravity could only be appreciated on a scale of space and time offered by a synoptic view. Indeed, that sensitive information which is subject of a mapping chronic Linked to space by a dynamic process relies on a powerful mapping information system. We can see the places where there has been victims of murder, assassination, or other kind of violence which end by a sudden death.
ELEMENTS OF METHODOLOGY
Each point on the map leads to an information allowing to identify a place, the victim and the circumstances, as stated by the sources mentioned in hyperlink with the possibility to automatically access the complete article.
To obtain such a dynamic map which can also be qualified as websig, the listed areas are converted in spatial data of point type, including geographical coordinates (x,y) of the place. The obtained points are projected on a worldwide coordinate system but not local, which allow to visualize on a planisphere with a shapefileformat.
The coordinates are obtained via the website www.twcc.fr. The website allows to search a locality in the database by using its name. As a result, a position and coordinates in different format (degrees or meters) are obtained and collected using a basic “copy and paste.” The website also allows to position one or many localities through their coordinates.
The information about Senegalese who died overseas in 2015, whether it was a voluntary murder or not or an accident, is received via our email (Gmail) thanks to the Google mail alert system.
The information are first of all entered on an Excel table with different fields (name of the victim, causes, identity of the victim(s), date, town, country, age, remarks, sources). Next, the information are linked to the spatial data of the correspondent localities using the mapping information system by a juncture manipulation. Each point thus takes back in its attributed table the information contained in the Excel table.
This operation allows to strengthen the spatial information of the concerned localities, leading to a dynamic cartography. This kind of representation of the information gives to the user, by a click or by skimming from one point on the map, to open a window which displays the details, likewise the user has the ability to manipulate different displaying options (legends, research, impression, map background) according to the restrictions.
To create this kind of map, there are many ways (ArcGIS Server, ArcGIS Online, OpenGeo suite, GeoServer). In this case, we’ve used the performances of ArcGIS Online allowing to transmit maps and related geographic information on the internet and to share them with the users. It’s about a geographic information management system through which the content can be shared and integrated with various applications and websites of final users. They can connect to maps and applications to use the shared and managed content in the cloud ArcGIS Online and on own systems. The reasons why we have chosen this platform are listed below:
FREE: The fact of disposing of a user account (without charges) offers a wide range of free applications and the disposal of a virtual server SIG, which spares of the constraints acquisition and management of a server.
The application is simple of use and doesn’t require deep knowledge of computer science to post online spatial information. Having basics is enough to start using ArcGIS Online. However, the easiness doesn’t take away the possibility of use in advanced mode to set up more sophisticated applications.
In addition to the advantages, ArcGIS Online offers the ability to publish and share spatial information just with some clicks. The establishment and publication of an application is quickly done, of course with a good internet connection.
The statistics were compiled using various sources, including those found in the online press or elsewhere. The result is available at Sénégalais tués à l’étranger (2015).
The map is an object which allows a rich and visual appreciation. The signs and colors of the language employed allows to focus on the result of an analysis of an object that can be generalized as violence and its extreme manifestation leading to death. Consequently, the map opens wide perspectives of research. The data and results returned in this way can guide preventive and precautionary attitudes that control the behavior of Senegalese who are overseas.
In seeking to establish an appraisal and expanding sources, particularly to state and consular services, the foundation for inventory work can be more easily established. Also, based on this preliminary work of mapping the 2015 year taken as a landmark, the prospective analysis can guide a discussion as a way of warning to mark deterrence for those exposed and those who may have responsibility for their protection.
Hypertext links and glossary
ArcGIS Server: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgisserver
ArcGis online: https://www.arcgis.com/home/
OpenGeo suite: http://boundlessgeo.com/products/opengeo-suite/
GeoServer : http://geoserver.org/
Universel Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Datum global : Données de référence géodésique
World Geodetic System 1984 ou (WGS 84) : Système géodésique mondial 1984
Shapefile : https://doc.arcgis.com/fr/arcgis-online/reference/shapefiles.htm
SIG : Système d’Information Géographique
www.twcc.fr. : Système mondial de conversion de coordonnées géographiques
Hypertexte ou hyperlien : lien qui permet d’accéder automatiquement à un site internet
Websig : Système d’Information Géographique, système collaboratif disponible à partir d’Internet
http://doc.arcgis.com/fr/arcgis-online/ Références et liens
See Interactive map accessible with this link: Sénégalais tués à l’étranger en 2015
Serigne Mbacké Camara, Salif Kâ, Khadim Diané
Beatings and / or firearms
05 to 06 march
4 members of Tandian family
Electrocution? fatal fall on the railway
Shipwreck / Immigration
Pape Amadou Diouf
Adja Arame et Sophie Guèye, Seynabou Ndoye
Military / War
Omar Diaby « Omar Omsen »
Military / War
El Hadj Mbaye