Cartography of the Senegalese killed overseas during 2015

Cartography of the Senegalese killed overseas during 2015
Mame Demba THIAM, Nicolas SAGNA & Alla  MANGA
Laboratory of geography
Fondamental Institute of Black Africa
Cheikh Anta Diop university
 
Introduction
« Once again, a Senegalese is killed overseas » has been in 2015 a constant headline displayed by the online journals. One thing that can be noted is the kind of trivialization of the repetitive character of the information. However the gravity could only be appreciated on a scale of space and time offered by a synoptic view. Indeed, that sensitive information which is subject of a mapping chronic Linked to space by a dynamic process relies on a powerful mapping information system. We can see the places where there has been victims of murder, assassination, or other kind of violence which end by a sudden death.
 
ELEMENTS OF METHODOLOGY
Each point on the map leads to an information allowing to identify a place, the victim and the circumstances, as stated by the sources mentioned in hyperlink with the possibility to automatically access the complete article.
To obtain such a dynamic map which can also be qualified as websig, the listed areas are converted in spatial data of point type, including geographical coordinates (x,y) of the place. The obtained points are projected on a worldwide coordinate system but not local, which allow to visualize on a planisphere with a shapefileformat.
The coordinates are obtained via the website www.twcc.fr.  The website allows to search a locality in the database by using its name. As a result, a position and coordinates in different format (degrees or meters) are obtained and collected using a basic “copy and paste.” The website also allows to position one or many localities through their coordinates.
The information about Senegalese who died overseas in 2015, whether it was a voluntary murder or not or an accident, is received via our email (Gmail) thanks to the Google mail alert system.
The information are first of all entered on an Excel table with different fields (name of the victim, causes, identity of the victim(s), date, town, country, age, remarks, sources). Next, the information are linked to the spatial data of the correspondent localities using the mapping information system by a juncture manipulation. Each point thus takes back in its attributed table the information contained in the Excel table.
This operation allows to strengthen the spatial information of the concerned localities, leading to a dynamic cartography. This kind of representation of the information gives to the user, by a click or by skimming from one point on the map, to open a window which displays the details, likewise the user has the ability to manipulate different displaying options (legends, research, impression, map background) according to the restrictions.
To create this kind of map, there are many ways (ArcGIS Server, ArcGIS Online, OpenGeo suite, GeoServer). In this case, we’ve used the performances of ArcGIS Online allowing to transmit maps and related geographic information on the internet and to share them with the users. It’s about a geographic information management system through which the content can be shared and integrated with various applications and websites of final users. They can connect to maps and applications to use the shared and managed content in the cloud ArcGIS Online and on own systems. The reasons why we have chosen this platform are listed below:
 
FREE: The fact of disposing of a user account (without charges) offers a wide range of free applications and the disposal of a virtual server SIG, which spares of the constraints acquisition and management of a server.
EASE:
The application is simple of use and doesn’t require deep knowledge of computer science to post online spatial information. Having basics is enough to start using ArcGIS Online. However, the easiness doesn’t take away the possibility of use in advanced mode to set up more sophisticated applications.
 
FASTNESS:
In addition to the advantages, ArcGIS Online offers the ability to publish and share spatial information just with some clicks. The establishment and publication of an application is quickly done, of course with a good internet connection.
 
Corpus:
The statistics were compiled using various sources, including those found in the online press or elsewhere. The result is available at Sénégalais tués à l’étranger (2015).
RESULTS:
The map is an object which allows a rich and visual appreciation. The signs and colors of the language employed allows to  focus on the result of an analysis of an object that can be generalized as violence and its extreme manifestation leading to death. Consequently, the map opens wide perspectives of research. The data and results returned in this way can guide preventive and precautionary attitudes that control the behavior of Senegalese who are overseas.
 
Discussion:
In seeking to establish an appraisal and expanding sources, particularly to state and consular services, the foundation for inventory work can be more easily established. Also, based on this preliminary work of mapping the 2015 year taken as a landmark, the prospective analysis can guide a discussion as a way of warning to mark deterrence for those exposed and those who may have responsibility for their protection.
 
 
Hypertext links and glossary
 
ArcGIS Server: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgisserver
ArcGis online: https://www.arcgis.com/home/
OpenGeo suite: http://boundlessgeo.com/products/opengeo-suite/
GeoServer : http://geoserver.org/
Universel Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Datum global : Données de référence géodésique
World Geodetic System 1984 ou (WGS 84) : Système géodésique mondial 1984
Shapefile : https://doc.arcgis.com/fr/arcgis-online/reference/shapefiles.htm
SIG : Système d’Information Géographique
www.twcc.fr. : Système mondial de conversion de coordonnées géographiques
Hypertexte ou hyperlien : lien qui permet d’accéder automatiquement à un site internet
Websig : Système d’Information Géographique, système collaboratif disponible à partir d’Internet
 
Références bibliographiques
http://doc.arcgis.com/fr/arcgis-online/ Références et liens
 
See Interactive map accessible with this link: Sénégalais tués à l’étranger en 2015
 
Country
Town
Causes
Type
Victimes
Date
Age
Sources
1
Algeria
Ouargla
Accident
Fire
Serigne Mbacké Camara, Salif Kâ, Khadim Diané
27 November
31, 33
2
Ivory Coast
Treichville
Assassination
Beatings and / or firearms
Souleymane Diallo
19 August
 
3
Spain
Saragosse
police blunder
fatal fall
Mor Sylla
August
35
4
Spain
Cadis
Drowning
Road accident…
Lamine Sylla
19 september
53
5
USA
Manhattan
Assassination
Firearm
Moctar Sy
28 january
38
6
USA
Houston
Undetermined
undetermined
Penda Sarr
April
25
7
USA
Louiseville
Assassination
cold steel
Rassoul Hann
1 october
 
8
USA
Columbus
Assassination
Firearm
Samba Dia
26 october
24
9
France
Paris
Police blunder
beatings
Amadou Koumé
05 to  06 march
33
10
France
Paris
Assassination
Aggression
Aminata Dia
09September
34
11
France
Paris
Assassination
Cold steel
Lamine Senghor
15 September
 
12
France
Paris
Assassination
Fire
4 members of Tandian family
September
 
13
Gabon
Libreville
Police blunder
Beatings
Moustapha Kébé
15-July
30
14
Grece
Thisseio
Police blunder
Electrocution? fatal fall on the railway
Cheikh Ndiaye
19 August
37
15
Italy
Casal Borseti
Assassination
Firearm
Mor Sèye
11 September
 
16
Italy
Lampedusa
drowning
Shipwreck / Immigration
 
13 February
 
17
Italy
Bergame
Assassination
Cold steel
Pape Amadou Diouf
01 november
 
18
Maroc
Casablanca
Undetermined
Fire
Adja Arame et Sophie Guèye, Seynabou Ndoye
07 April
 
19
Mauritania
Nouakchott
Accident
Road accident
Khadim Diop
5 August
 
20
Mediterranean
 
drowning
Shipwreck/immigration
 
24 August
 
21
Mediterranean
 
drowning
Shipwreck/immigration
 
25 April
 
22
Mediterranean
 
Drowning
Shipwreck/immigration
Alassane Fall
05 May
34
23
Nigeria
Kaduna
Police blunder
firearm
Oumar Ndiaye
20 October
 
24
Syria
 
Undetermined
Military / War
Omar Diaby « Omar Omsen »
9 August
40
25
Mali
Bamako
Assassination
Military / War
Assane Sall
20 November
 
26
France
Renne
Assassination
firearm
Babacar Gueye
03 Décembre
ans
27
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
Police blunder
undetermined
El Hadj Mbaye
07 Décembre
 
28
Mauritania
Nouakchott
Accident
Fire
 
30 décembre
10 ans
29
Italy
Syracuse
undetermined
undetermined
 
31 décembre
 
30
Italy
Naples
Undetermined
undetermined
 
31 décembre
 

 

 

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